RAMAT HA-SHOFET (Heb. רָמַת הַשּׁוֹפֵט), kibbutz in central Israel, on the Manasseh Hills near Ein ha-Shofet, affiliated with Kibbutz Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir. It was founded by pioneers from Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria in 1941, with the aim of reinforcing the "bridge" of Jewish settlements between the Sharon and the Jezreel Valley. In 1970 the kibbutz had 530 inhabitants, increasing to 710 in the mid-1990s but then dropping to 557 in 2002. Farming included field crops (with Kibbutz ramot menasheh ), avocado plantations, poultry, and dairy cattle. The kibbutz also manufactured plastic and wood products and operated guest rooms. The local Beit Rishonim museum focuses on the history of the kibbutz. The name Ramat ha-Shofet, meaning "Height of the Judge," commemorates Judge julian w. mack , U.S. Zionist leader. (Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • MACK, JULIAN WILLIAM — (1866–1943), U.S. judge and Zionist leader. Mack, who was born in San Francisco, graduated from Harvard Law School in 1887, studied at the universities of Berlin and Leipzig, entered law practice in Chicago, and served as professor of law at… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RAMOT MENASHEH — (Heb. רָמוֹת מְנַשֶּׁה; ramot, heights ), kibbutz in the Manasseh Hills, Israel, affiliated with Kibbutz Arẓi ha Shomer ha Ẓa ir. It was founded in 1948 by young immigrants from Poland, including ghetto fighters of World War II, and Bulgaria.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • POPULATION — THE JEWISH POPULATION Growth by Aliyah In 1882 the Jewish population of Ereẓ Israel numbered some 24,000, roughly 5% of the total, and about 0.3% of the world Jewish population. Since then there has been an almost continuous flow of aliyah, which …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HUMAN GEOGRAPHY — In respect of human as well as of physical geography, it is convenient to divide the Land of Israel into four major units: 1. the Mediterranean Coastal Plain 2. the hill regions of northern and central Cisjordan (west of the Jordan) 3. the Rift… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HAGANAH — (Heb. הַגָּנָה), the underground military organization of the yishuv in Ereẓ Israel from 1920 to 1948. The idea of establishing a defense organization that would protect the yishuv throughout Ereẓ Israel was born during the Ottoman period. The… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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